Types of Data

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In statistics and econometricsparticularly in regression analysisa dummy variable also known as an indicator variabledesign variableBoolean indicatorbinary variableor qualitative variable [1] [2] is one that takes the value 0 or 1 to indicate the absence or presence of some categorical effect that may be expected to shift the outcome. A dummy variable can binary variable be thought of as binary variable truth value represented binary variable a numerical value 0 or 1 as is sometimes done in computer programming.

Dummy variables are "proxy" variables or numeric stand-ins for qualitative facts in a regression model. In regression analysis, the dependent variables may be influenced not only by quantitative variables income, output, prices, etc. A dummy independent variable also called a dummy binary variable variable which for some observation has a value of 0 will cause that variable's coefficient to have no role in influencing the dependent variablewhile when the dummy takes on a value 1 its coefficient acts to alter the intercept.

For example, suppose membership in a group is one of the qualitative variables relevant to a regression. If group membership is arbitrarily assigned the value of 1, then all others would get the value 0. Then the intercept the value of the dependent variable if all other explanatory variables hypothetically took on the value zero would binary variable the constant term for non-members but would be the constant term plus the coefficient of the membership dummy in the case of group members.

Dummy variables are used frequently in time series analysis with regime switching, seasonal analysis and binary variable data applications. Dummy variables are binary variable in studies for economic forecastingbio-medical studies, credit scoringresponse modelling, etc.

Dummy variables may be incorporated in traditional regression methods binary variable newly developed modeling paradigms. Dummy variables are incorporated in the same way as quantitative variables are included as explanatory variables in regression models.

For example, if we consider a Mincer-type regression model of wage determination, wherein wages are dependent on gender qualitative and years of education quantitative:. Binary variable that the binary variable attached to the dummy variables are called differential intercept coefficients. The model can be depicted binary variable as an intercept shift between females and males.

Dummy variables may be extended to more complex cases. For example, seasonal effects may be captured by creating dummy variables for each of the seasons: In the panel datafixed effects estimator binary variable are created for binary variable of the units in cross-sectional data e.

However in such regressions either the constant term has to be removed or one of the dummies has to be removed, with its associated category becoming the base binary variable against binary variable the others are assessed in order binary variable avoid the dummy variable trap:. The constant term in all regression equations is a coefficient multiplied by a regressor equal to one. When the regression is expressed as a matrix equation, the matrix of regressors then consists of a column of ones the constant termvectors of zeros and ones the dummies binary variable, and possibly other regressors.

If one includes both male binary variable female dummies, say, the sum of these vectors is a vector of ones, since every observation is categorized as either male or female. This sum is thus equal to the binary variable term's regressor, binary variable first vector of ones. As result, the regression equation will be unsolvable, even by the typical pseudoinverse method. This is referred to as the dummy variable trap. The binary variable can be avoided by removing either the constant term or one of the offending dummies.

The removed dummy then becomes the base category against which the binary variable categories are compared. A regression model in which the dependent variable is quantitative in nature but binary variable the explanatory variables are dummies binary variable in nature is called an Analysis of Variance ANOVA binary variable. Suppose we want to run a regression to find out if the average annual salary of public school teachers differs among three geographical regions in Country A with 51 states: Say that the simple arithmetic average salaries are binary variable follows: The arithmetic averages are different, but are they statistically different from each other?

To compare the mean values, Analysis of Variance techniques can be used. The regression model can be defined as:. In this model, we have only qualitative regressors, taking the value of 1 if the observation belongs to a specific category and 0 if it belongs to any other category. Now, taking the expectation of both sides, we obtain the following:.

The error term does not get included binary variable the expectation values as it is assumed that it satisfies the usual OLS conditions, i. The expected values can be interpreted as follows: Thus, the mean salaries of teachers in the North and South is compared against the mean salary of the teachers in the West. Hence, the West Region becomes the base group or the benchmark group ,i.

The omitted categoryi. The regression binary variable can be interpreted as: To find out if the mean salaries of the teachers in the North and Binary variable are statistically different from that of the teachers in the West the comparison categorywe have to find out if the slope coefficients of the regression result are statistically significant.

For this, we need to consider the p values. The model is diagrammatically shown in Figure 2. Here, Marital Status and Geographical Region are the two explanatory dummy variables.

In this model, a single dummy binary variable assigned to each qualitative variable, one less than the number of categories included in each. Here, the base group is the omitted category: Unmarried, Non-North region Unmarried people who do not live in the North region. All comparisons would be made in relation to this base group or omitted category. Thus, if more than one binary variable variable is included in the regression, it is important to note that the omitted category should be chosen as the benchmark binary variable and all comparisons binary variable be made in relation to that category.

The intercept term will show the expectation of the benchmark category and the slope coefficients will show by how much the other categories differ from binary variable benchmark omitted category. They statistically control for the effects of quantitative explanatory variables also called covariates or control variables. If we include a quantitative variable, State Government expenditure on public schools per pupilin this regression, we get the following model:. Figure binary variable depicts this model diagrammatically.

The average salary lines are parallel to binary variable other by the assumption of the model that the coefficient of expenditure binary variable not vary by state. The trade off shown separately in the graph for each category is between the two binary variable variables: Quantitative regressors in regression models often have an interaction among each other.

In the same way, qualitative binary variable, or dummies, can also have interaction effects between each other, and these interactions can be depicted in the regression model. For example, in a regression involving determination of wages, if two qualitative variables are considered, namely, gender and marital status, there could be an interaction between marital status and gender.

With the two qualitative variables being gender and marital status and with the quantitative explanator being years of education, a regression that is purely linear in the explanators would be. This specification does not allow for the possibility that there may be an interaction that occurs between the two qualitative variables, D 2 and D 3.

For example, a female who is married may earn wages that differ from those of an unmarried male by an amount that is not the binary variable as binary variable sum of the differentials for solely being female and solely being married. Then the effect of the interacting dummies on the mean of Y is not simply additive as in the case of the above specification, but multiplicative also, and the determination of wages can be specified as:. Thus, an interaction dummy product of two dummies can alter the dependent variable from the value that it gets binary variable the two dummies are considered individually.

However, the use of products of dummy variables to capture interactions can be avoided by using a different scheme for categorizing the data—one that specifies categories in terms of combinations of characteristics. This specification involves the same number of right-side variables as does the previous specification with an interaction term, and the regression results for the predicted value of the dependent variable contingent on X ifor any combination of qualitative traits, are binary variable between this specification and the interaction specification.

A model with a dummy dependent variable also known as a qualitative dependent variable is one binary variable which the dependent variable, as influenced by the explanatory variables, is qualitative in nature. Some decisions regarding 'how much' of an act must be performed involve a prior decision making on whether to perform the act or not.

For example, the amount of output to produce, the cost to be incurred, etc. Such "prior decisions" become dependent dummies in the regression model. For example, the decision of a worker to be a part of the labour force becomes a dummy dependent variable. The decision is dichotomousi. So the dependent dummy variable Participation would take on the value 1 if participating, 0 if not participating.

Affiliation to a Political Party. When the qualitative dependent dummy variable has more than two values such as affiliation to many political partiesbinary variable becomes a multiresponse or a multinomial or polychotomous model.

Analysis of dependent dummy variable models can be done through different methods. One such method is the usual OLS method, binary variable in this context is called the linear probability model. This is the underlying concept of the logit and probit models.

These models are discussed in brief below. An ordinary least squares model in which the dependent variable Y is a dichotomous dummy, taking the values of 0 and 1, is the linear probability model LPM. The model is binary variable the linear probability model because, the regression is linear.

Thus the relationship between the independent and dependent variables is binary variable non-linear. For this purpose, a cumulative distribution function CDF can be used to estimate the dependent dummy variable regression.

Figure 4 shows binary variable 'S'-shaped curve, which binary variable the CDF of a random variable. In this model, the probability is between 0 and 1 and the non-linearity has been captured. The choice of the CDF to be used is now the question. Two alternative CDFs can be used: The shortcomings of the LPM led to the development of a more refined and improved model called the logit model.

In the logit model, the cumulative distribution of the error term in the regression equation is logistic. The binary variable model is estimated using the maximum likelihood approach. The model is then binary variable in the form of the odds ratio: Taking the natural log of the odds, the logit L i is expressed as.

This relationship binary variable that L i is linear in relation to X ibut the probabilities are not linear in terms of X i. Another model that binary variable developed to offset the disadvantages of the LPM is the probit model. The probit model uses the same approach to non-linearity as does the logit model; however, it uses the normal CDF instead binary variable the logistic CDF. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Journal of the American Binary variable Association.

Dummy Dependent Variable Models". Retrieved from " https:

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Binary variables are variables which only take two values. While many variables and questions are naturally binary, it is often useful to construct binary variables from other types of data. For example, turning age into two groups: Constructing binary variables is also known as quantizing and dichotomizing. Often it is useful to construct binary variables for use in creating other variables.

To most people, averages and percentages are quite different concepts, with averages applying to numeric data e. From a computational perspective, averages and proportions are very closely related and this interrelationship can be exploited using Q to save time if you used SPSS, it is likely that you already understand the basic principles that are demonstrated in this section; if not, it may seem a bit strange at first.

If you construct binary variables by recoding or constructing numeric values to only take values of 0, 1 and NaN , any computed averages will also be proportions. If, for example, the question was measuring brands that the consumer would consider buying, the SUM would then measure the consideration set size whereas with a traditional binary variable, the NET would indicate the proportion of the sample to consider 1 or more brands.

Why does this work? It is because any binary variable, by definition, is implicitly also a Numeric Variable. That is, Numeric Variables are variables that can take any value, and binary variables take values of 0 and 1 and are thus Numeric Variables. Any of the ways for creating numeric variables can be used to create binary variables. However, the main approaches are:. Any Filters that are created from a cell in a table, for example are binary variables.

Binary variables can be constructed by editing the Values in the Value Attributes so that they all take only two values generally, 0 and 1 are most appropriate. Banner questions are intrinsically binary i. In theory, binary variables should only have two values. In practice, it is often useful if they can also have missing values, in which case the Binary - Complicated Filter and the methods based around creating Filters tend not to be useful.

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